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The Effects of China's One-Child Policy中国独生子女政策的影响

Liston2021-04-11查看:0

本篇的英文是从英文网站摘录的,仅列举了中国独生子女所导致的一些现象,未深入其它。Liston行中文翻译并做简单的点评。

The one-child policy was a program that was implemented nationwide by the Chinese government in 1980 in order to limit most Chinese families to one child each. The policy was enacted to address the growth rate of China's population, which the government viewed as being too high. In late 2015 the government announced that the one-child limit per family would end in 2016. Here are some of the major consequences of the policy.

Liston翻译:独生子女政策是中国政府1980年在全国范围内实施的一项制度,目的是让大多数家庭只能生育一个孩子。政府认为人口增长率太了,制定这项政策是为了解决人口增长率问题。2015年末,政府宣布独生子女限制将于2016年结束。以下是该政策的一些

The fertility rate decreased after 1980.

The birth rate decreased after 1980.

The overall rate of natural increase (the difference between the birth rate and the death rate) declined.

The Chinese government estimated that some 400 million births were prevented by the policy, although some analysts dispute this finding.

As sons were generally preferred over daughters, the overall sex ratio in China became skewed toward males. In 2016 there were 33.59 million more men than women.

Because of the preference for sons, there was a rise in the number of abortions of female fetuses.

The number of female babies killed, abandoned, or placed in orphanages increased as a result of the policy.

Incentives were offered to families complying with the policy, including financial perks and greater employment options.

Millions of Chinese parents had to endure strict enforcement methods of the policy, including forced sterilization and forced abortions.

In families that already had one child, the births of additional children—in violation of the one-child policy—were often undocumented, leading to many problems later on for those children as they struggled to receive an education or find work.

Even after the one-child policy was rescinded, China's birth and fertility rates remained low, leaving the country with a population that was aging too rapidly as well as a shrinking workforce.

Liston翻译

1980年以后育子率下降了。

1980年以后出生率下降了。

人口自然增长率(出生率和死亡率之间的差异)下降了。

中国政府估计,该政策阻止了约4亿人的出生,不有一些分析质疑这个数据。

由于重男轻女,中国的总体性别比例向男性倾斜。2016年,男性比女性多3359人。

由于重男轻女,女性胎儿流产的数量增加了。

由于这项政策,被杀、遗弃或被安置在孤儿院的女婴人数增加了。

对支持该政策的家庭所提供的激励措施包括了财政补贴和更多的就业选择。

亿万中国父母必须忍受这项政策的严格执行方式,包括强制绝育和强制堕胎。

在已生一个孩子后,违反独生子女政策的家庭,其多生育的孩子往往没有证件,导致接受教育或找工作时遇到很多麻烦。

即使在取消独生子女政策之后,中国的出生率和育子率仍然很低,人口老龄化过快,劳动也在减少。

Liston的翻译点评与含义解析请查看原帖。

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